5G Basics: The Five A’s of 5G

The Five A’s of 5G is a series of short courses provided by a Wireless Waypoint Associate. The  40 minute sessions introduce students to the “Five A’s” of Fifth Generation (5G) cellular communications: Architecture, Availability, Applications, Administration, and Affordability.

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Importance

  • We are now hearing the terms “5G revolution” and the “Fourth Industrial Revolution”  carried by 5G Wireless. Regardless of where you stand on the optimism scale 5G will have a profound impact on the way we communicate and live. Many Communications and Information Technology products will need to be re-engineered. New markets are developing.
  • The difference from 4G to 5G is profound and not like previous steps some 2 G to 3G or from 3G to 4G.
  • This is the enabler for Smart Cities, autonomous vehicles and IoT.
  • Trials are now occurring and billions of dollars are being invested in 5G spectrum and technology this year.

Learning Methodology

All sessions are typically updated on a weekly basis. Learning is delivered with 40 minute live web events with 10 to 15 minutes for questions and dialogue.  We can also provide longer on premises training.

No Prerequisite learning required

Presenter

Frank Ohrtman is an internationally known author and wireless spokesperson. His knowledge of 5G and fascinating delivery style give him a 5 star rating from his students.

An Introduction to 5G: Supporting Architecture

  1. Introduction: The 5 A’s of 5G
    • North America mobile data demand: the end of wires as we know them or “not your dad’s cell phone”
    • What is 5G vs. 4G vs. 3G?
    • Performance comparisons: 5G vs. 4G.
    • Technologies that support 5G (Ex. MIMO)
    • Spectrum requirements and issues (mm wave: no relationship to 3G/4G spectrum)
    • Current trends driving 5G: Ex. “cord cutting”: consumers reject “wires”, wired services
    • Recent announcements of 5G platforms by industry leaders
    • Future casting: the telecom world of 2024
      • Winners
      • Losers 
  2. Architecture: What is 5G and How Does 5G Work
  • Physical Layer:
    • Modulation
    • MIMO
  • Spectrum: cm and mm wave or “Something completely different”
    • New spectrum bands
    • Opportunities
  • MAC Layer
  • Security: Encryption, other security measures

 

An Introduction to 5G: Availability and Applications

 

  1. Availability: When Will We have It?
  • “Proto 5G” or “pre-standard 5G”: coming on market, announcements
  • Some roadmaps for 5G Industry players/vendors
    • Service providers: Google, Comcast, Verizon, Sprint, Charter & AT&T’s “AirGig”
    • Chipsets: Qualcom, Intel, have announced products
    • Handsets: Samsung, HTC, Apple, Google, Motorola, Panasonic and “WiGig” (802.11ad)
    • Set-top boxes: Arris
  • Technology forecast for 5G
  • Some applications may come earlier than others
  • Time frames: 2018? 2020?
  • Regulatory
    • FCC and spectrum bands for 5G
    • Assignment: recent FCC cm, mm wave spectrum announcements
    • Allocation: licensed vs. unlicensed
  • Standards issues: IEEE, 3GPP and ITU announcements Who/what to watch for in standards
    • Open vs. proprietary
    • Early market entrants gamble on standards (Ex. 802.11ac)
    • Need ecosystem of subscriber devices (smartphones, TVs, USB devices) and access points (AP, base stations)
  • Consensus Industry groups: CableLabs, Wi-Fi Alliance, CTA
  • Evolution in Middle/Last Mile, “5G Ready Core” Internet, IP addressing to support 5G, DOCSIS 3.0/3.1

 

  1. Applications: What Will We Do with It?
  • Mobile voice
  • Mobile data
  • IoT
  • Smart Grid/Smart Energy
  • Smart Homes
  • Smart Cities
  • Driverless cars/trucks/transportation
  • Consumer electronics: set top boxes, access points, routers, etc.
  • Smart Stadiums
  • Smart Schools
  • RFID
  • 5G enabled applications

 

An Introduction to 5G: Administration and Affordability

 

  1. Administration: When Will It Be “Legal”?
  • Policy issues related to 5G
  • Spectrum requirements and issues related to 5G
  • Regulatory bodies (FCC, ITU)
    • Spectrum assignment
      • 5G Spectrum Plan
      • Each nation makes a spectrum plan
      • Some guidance from ITU,
      • FCC as example
    • Spectrum allocation
      • Who gets what spectrum
      • Spectrum auctions
      • Software Defined Radios
      • Shared spectrum
  • One Big Phat Buyer: Federal Government (Ex. FirstNet, DoD, USDA approval)
  • Standards and standards issues (who wins, loses)

 

  1. Affordability: “Show Me the Money”

 

  • The Business Case: More bandwidth = more applications = more revenue streams
  • Industry verticals
    • Cellular
    • Fixed wireless ISP
    • Utilities
    • Transportation
    • Rural broadband
    • Municipal broadband
    • Cable TV (MSO)
  • 5G ecosystem: potential winners
  • Economic impact of 5G
  • Disruptive Technology: who/what will be disrupted?
  • Losers
    • Landline telephony providers
    • $100/month/line cell phone bills
    • “Walled gardens”
  • Winners
    • 5G providers/vendors in ecosystem
    • Consumers
  • End-to-end 5G: technology forecast

 

Conclusion and Summary

The Big Load for Small Cells

Small cells are key for future cellular communications as they provide higher capacity through network densification. One of the factors for success in Smart Cities is the ability to increase broadband coverage by means of small cells.

  • Overview
  • Application
    • The “why” of small cells
    • Service in dense environments
  • Architecture
    • Evolution in cellular topology
    • Smaller is better
  • Access
    • Considerations in deploying small cell
    • Backhaul “how to” for small cells
  • Administration
    • Spectrum
    • Placement and real estate concerns
  • Affordability
    • Economics of small cell
    • Market drivers for small cell
  • Conclusion

 

Distributed Antenna Systems: “I can hear you now”

The average tenure for a CIO is about 3 years. The joke is CIO stands for “Career is Over”. Every user demands perfect service everywhere and all the time. For example, tenants in buildings won’t tolerate dead spots for their cell phones.

Distributed Antenna Systems can make a CIO’s life easier by creating well defined cellular coverage areas with fewer holes.

  • Overview
  • Application
    • In-building services
    • Stadiums, auditoriums, etc
  • Architecture
    • Cellular
    • Wi-Fi
    • Wi-Gig
  • Access
    • Devices
    • Radios
    • Antennas
  • Administration
    • Spectrum
    • Placement and real estate concerns
  • Affordability
    • Who pays for DAS?
    • Benefits of DAS
    • Market drivers for DAS
  • Conclusion

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Public Safety LTE: Deployments, Strategies and Challenges

Our perspectives and insights into Public Safety technologies (including FirstNet, and adoption of Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, Wearables, V2V, and more) were covered in latest RCR Wireless report.

A 911 call is actionable, but complex data pulled from transportation systems are likely to need real-time analytics and even predictive analytics to be actionable (report excerpt)

Contact Wireless Waypoint to also learn more about:

  • Role for Mobile Edge Computing, Predictive Analytics and AI in Public Safety Data Management
  • Role of Virtual Reality to test and simulate Public Safety apps and solutions
  • Why Carriers should create an App Store for First Net Public Safety applications
  • Evolution of Public Safety LTE, Next Generation Apps, and more

PublicSafetyReportsm

Editorial Report: Public Safety

After years of planning and pilot projects, the national public safety wireless broadband network known as FirstNet is poised to soon become a reality.  RCR Wireless takes stock of FirstNet’s status, short and long-term goals, and technical issues including spectrum sharing and tough network environments; and FirstNet’s recently opened testing lab for exploring new devices and apps for public safety.  Also looks at how FirstNet will impact the in-building wireless market, and what it will take for FirstNet to become financially self-sustaining as a public safety network.

Get a copy of Public Safety LTE: Deployments, Strategies and Challenges

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Public Safety LTE Webinar

Wireless Waypoint also presented its views during yesterday’s RCR Wireless hosted Public Safety LTE Webinar.  In the Webinar, Wireless Waypoint discussed FirstNet adoption factors, challenges and opportunities for FirstNet sustainability, and next generation capabilities such as using IoT to tie together physical and cyber security.

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Learn more about Next Generation Public Safety Technology

Need to better understand the future of Public Safety?

Screen-Shot-2017-03-22-at-2.19.50-PM-351x185

Wireless Waypoint presented its views during today’s RCR Wireless hosted Public Safety LTE Webinar.  In the Webinar, Wireless Waypoint discussed FirstNet adoption factors, challenges and opportunities for FirstNet sustainability, and next generation capabilities such as using IoT to tie together physical and cyber security.

Book a Consultation with Wireless Waypoint to learn more about the following:

  • Role for Mobile Edge Computing, Predictive Analytics and AI in Public Safety Data Management
  • Role of Virtual Reality to test and simulate Public Safety apps and solutions
  • Why Carriers should create an App Store for First Net Public Safety applications
  • Evolution of Public Safety LTE, Next Generation Apps, and more

RCR Editorial Webinar: Public Safety (22nd March 2017)

 
After years of planning and pilot projects, the national public safety wireless broadband network known as FirstNet is poised to soon become a reality. RCR Wireless takes stock of FirstNet’s status, short- and long-term goals, as well as technical issues including spectrum sharing and covering tough network environments; and FirstNet’s recently opened testing lab for exploring new devices and applications for public safety.
This webinar also looks at how FirstNet will impact the in-building wireless market, and what it will take for FirstNet to become financially self-sustaining as a public-safety-only network.
Questions Answered in Webinar:
-FirstNet’s plans for the first 100 days of operations, plus short- and long-term milestones
-Status of the $6.5 billion RFP
-The role of the FirstNet testing lab in Boulder, Colorado in application and device development for public safety
-Potential impacts on the inbuilding wireless market
-How will FirstNet become self-sustaining?
Panelists:
Kelly Hill, Editor, RCR Wireless News
Gerry Christensen, Principal Consultant, Wireless Waypoint
Greg Najjar, Director of Business Development, ADRF
Chris Odenthal, Program Manager, Jacobs Engineering
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Learn More about SS7

Signaling System number Seven (SS7) is a critical component of modern telecommunications systems. SS7 is a communications protocol that provides signaling and control for various network services and capabilities. Being a layered protocol, SS7 provides various protocol levels for connection oriented and connectionless (database) signaling in fixed and mobile networks.

While the Internet, wireless data, and related technology have captured the attention of millions, many forget or do not realize the importance of SS7. Every call in every network is dependent on SS7. Likewise, every mobile phone user is dependent on SS7 to allow inter-network roaming. SS7 is also the “glue” that sticks together circuit switched (traditional) networks with packet switched (IP based) networks.

Purchase Data on SS7 (click here to pay via credit card)

DataSS7

Data on SS7 is written in tutorial style and is intended to provide an introduction and overview of SS7 technology and applications at the beginner level.  In addition to evaluating the SS7 protocol, signaling operation, and network engineering, Data on SS7 also provides extensive coverage of various applications of SS7 and related technologies including:

  • Value-added voice services such as VPN dialing and call routing
  • Next generation services including location-based billing and information
  • SS7 in support of SMS roaming and inter-network messaging
  • Non-voice network requirements including evolution to MMS
  • Triggers and issues driving SMS off-load from SS7 to IP-based networks
  • Evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of the stand-alone HLR
  • Implementation of the pseudo HLR and its use in mobile prepay
  • Extraction of data from SS7 for various purposes including network monitoring, billing rating and reconciliation, and presence detection
  • Use of SS7 in support of regulatory mandates such as mobile number portability and lawful intercept
  • Discussion of roaming in mobile networks and the application of mobile IN and SS7 technology for prepay mobile and other voice and data services

What is signaling? Telecommunications signaling is the transmission of data for purposes of sharing information for network control and/or call control. There are two major categories of signaling applications: call set-up and database communications.  Learn more – acquire Data on SS7

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5G USA Update

The US division of Samsung electronics claims to have completed deployment of 5G systems in the USA.  Samsung and Verizon 5G trials will kick off in New Jersey, Massachusetts, Texas, Washington DC, and Michigan.  Verizon sees mobile 5G in late 2019; one-third of the way through its virtualization efforts.

Playing it even more conservative than rival Verizon, Sprint CFO Tarek Robbiati said the carrier sees mobile 5G within the next 5 years

T-Mobile does have its own 5G trials running, Ray said, but it’s in 4G that carriers and equipment makers will develop many of the technologies they’ll need for 5G.  “5G is not ready yet,” Ray said. “It’s maturing quickly, but it’s not real today, and I can’t go and deploy a 5G radio to serve my customers with and give them a handset.”, said T-Mobile USA’s Chief Technology Officer Neville Ray.

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5G Policy in the Americas

The fifth generation (5G) of cellular communications embodies a much anticipated technology solution set consisting of higher frequency RF, extreme densification of HetNets, MIMO based antennas, and millimeter wave technology.

5G commercial deployment is not anticipated in earnest until approximately 2020.  However, there is substantial R&D effort underway with major telecom infrastructure providers.  There are certain regional regulatory and policy efforts underway as well.

In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is leading 5G policy efforts and on July 14, 2016 released a REPORT AND ORDER AND FURTHER NOTICE OF PROPOSED RULEMAKING regarding rules for new use of 10.85 gigahertz of spectrum in the millimeter-wave bands, and proposes to adopt similar rules in another 18 gigahertz.

The Information Technology & Innovation Foundation (ITIF) produced a report last year entitled 5G and Next Generation Wireless: Implications for Policy and Competition, which provided some additional views and opinions.

Wireless Waypoint is studying the 5G policy framework and initiatives within the United States and has been commissioned by Horizon House Research to produce a report to be released in 2Q 2017.

5GPolicyReport

If you are involved in broadband wireless policy, 5G policy specifically, and/or if your company is part of the emerging 5G ecosystem, we welcome your inputs and viewpoints as part of our due diligence and analysis.

Contact Wireless Waypoint for more information and to schedule an initial briefing.

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Questioning the Standard Narrative: Is 5G Safe or is it “Safe”

Wireless Waypoint is part of the telecom and computing industry, so don’t take this post the wrong way as we are all for more bandwidth, advanced applications and services.

rfsafety5g

RF Safety and 5G

This post is not indicative of an adverse posture towards 5G as there will be many societal benefits associated with the technology.

For example, anticipated reduction in latency for 5G enabled apps and services is expected to supercharge many delay sensitive solutions involving Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, Haptic/Tactile Internet, and more.

This will surely have a benefit to Public Safety in terms of greater bandwidth for emergency services personnel (e.g. looking beyond LTE and FirstNet), providing next generation apps for first responders and PSAPs.

There will be a lot more RF energy beaming around with 5G and at much higher frequencies.  

The standard narrative is that millimeter wave technology used for 5G will be safe for living and non-living things.  Some limited 5G testing with rats in which they were exposed to nine hours of radiation daily is indicative of potential concerns.  However, it could be easy for some to write-off this type of study as being out of context for real-world conditions.

The question remains though: Is it a good idea for society as a whole to have so much more RF radiation?  Will the societal benefits outweigh the potential long-term health effects, not to mention the potential impact on the earth’s ecosystem as a whole (e.g. the plants and animals for which humans share the planet and in some cases rely upon for food)?

Is it a good idea for society as a whole to have so much more RF radiation?

It is well-known that there have been many questions about RF safety, causing much debate for the last two decades.  Many health advocacy agencies have gotten involved, prompting governmental agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to get involved.  The FDA provides a couple of steps people can take to minimize radiation exposure when using cell phones such as use of a headset to reduce exposure.

The National Toxicology Program has been conducting experiments in rats and mice on potential health hazards from cell phone radio frequency radiation.  They released study findings on May 27, 2016.

One can conclude that there already is an issue with pre-5G, but it can be dealt with by way of headsets (for voice), and most activity is arguably smartphone in hand and eyes on screen (e.g. texting, browsing, and apps) so the phone is not near the head.

If we assume there will be at least similar issues with 5G, it is important to also consider that much higher frequencies, and density of coverage (especially in an urban environment) could potentially magnify concerns.  In other words, the question could be “can you really avoid RF radiation when it will be all around you?”

Arguably, some of the more near-term applications for 5G involve fixed wireless and back-haul, which are deployed in a point-to-point manner.  Perhaps the industry can take the time to engage in some real-world testing with some of these early solutions, and hopefully, put at ease any concerns or lingering doubts about 5G prior to wide-spread deployment.

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