5G Basics: The Five A’s of 5G

The Five A’s of 5G is a series of short courses provided by a Wireless Waypoint Associate. The  40 minute sessions introduce students to the “Five A’s” of Fifth Generation (5G) cellular communications: Architecture, Availability, Applications, Administration, and Affordability.

Contact Us for More Information about this Course and other Training


  • We are now hearing the terms “5G revolution” and the “Fourth Industrial Revolution”  carried by 5G Wireless. Regardless of where you stand on the optimism scale 5G will have a profound impact on the way we communicate and live. Many Communications and Information Technology products will need to be re-engineered. New markets are developing.
  • The difference from 4G to 5G is profound and not like previous steps some 2 G to 3G or from 3G to 4G.
  • This is the enabler for Smart Cities, autonomous vehicles and IoT.
  • Trials are now occurring and billions of dollars are being invested in 5G spectrum and technology this year.

Learning Methodology

All sessions are typically updated on a weekly basis. Learning is delivered with 40 minute live web events with 10 to 15 minutes for questions and dialogue.  We can also provide longer on premises training.

No Prerequisite learning required


Frank Ohrtman is an internationally known author and wireless spokesperson. His knowledge of 5G and fascinating delivery style give him a 5 star rating from his students.

An Introduction to 5G: Supporting Architecture

  1. Introduction: The 5 A’s of 5G
    • North America mobile data demand: the end of wires as we know them or “not your dad’s cell phone”
    • What is 5G vs. 4G vs. 3G?
    • Performance comparisons: 5G vs. 4G.
    • Technologies that support 5G (Ex. MIMO)
    • Spectrum requirements and issues (mm wave: no relationship to 3G/4G spectrum)
    • Current trends driving 5G: Ex. “cord cutting”: consumers reject “wires”, wired services
    • Recent announcements of 5G platforms by industry leaders
    • Future casting: the telecom world of 2024
      • Winners
      • Losers 
  2. Architecture: What is 5G and How Does 5G Work
  • Physical Layer:
    • Modulation
    • MIMO
  • Spectrum: cm and mm wave or “Something completely different”
    • New spectrum bands
    • Opportunities
  • MAC Layer
  • Security: Encryption, other security measures


An Introduction to 5G: Availability and Applications


  1. Availability: When Will We have It?
  • “Proto 5G” or “pre-standard 5G”: coming on market, announcements
  • Some roadmaps for 5G Industry players/vendors
    • Service providers: Google, Comcast, Verizon, Sprint, Charter & AT&T’s “AirGig”
    • Chipsets: Qualcom, Intel, have announced products
    • Handsets: Samsung, HTC, Apple, Google, Motorola, Panasonic and “WiGig” (802.11ad)
    • Set-top boxes: Arris
  • Technology forecast for 5G
  • Some applications may come earlier than others
  • Time frames: 2018? 2020?
  • Regulatory
    • FCC and spectrum bands for 5G
    • Assignment: recent FCC cm, mm wave spectrum announcements
    • Allocation: licensed vs. unlicensed
  • Standards issues: IEEE, 3GPP and ITU announcements Who/what to watch for in standards
    • Open vs. proprietary
    • Early market entrants gamble on standards (Ex. 802.11ac)
    • Need ecosystem of subscriber devices (smartphones, TVs, USB devices) and access points (AP, base stations)
  • Consensus Industry groups: CableLabs, Wi-Fi Alliance, CTA
  • Evolution in Middle/Last Mile, “5G Ready Core” Internet, IP addressing to support 5G, DOCSIS 3.0/3.1


  1. Applications: What Will We Do with It?
  • Mobile voice
  • Mobile data
  • IoT
  • Smart Grid/Smart Energy
  • Smart Homes
  • Smart Cities
  • Driverless cars/trucks/transportation
  • Consumer electronics: set top boxes, access points, routers, etc.
  • Smart Stadiums
  • Smart Schools
  • RFID
  • 5G enabled applications


An Introduction to 5G: Administration and Affordability


  1. Administration: When Will It Be “Legal”?
  • Policy issues related to 5G
  • Spectrum requirements and issues related to 5G
  • Regulatory bodies (FCC, ITU)
    • Spectrum assignment
      • 5G Spectrum Plan
      • Each nation makes a spectrum plan
      • Some guidance from ITU,
      • FCC as example
    • Spectrum allocation
      • Who gets what spectrum
      • Spectrum auctions
      • Software Defined Radios
      • Shared spectrum
  • One Big Phat Buyer: Federal Government (Ex. FirstNet, DoD, USDA approval)
  • Standards and standards issues (who wins, loses)


  1. Affordability: “Show Me the Money”


  • The Business Case: More bandwidth = more applications = more revenue streams
  • Industry verticals
    • Cellular
    • Fixed wireless ISP
    • Utilities
    • Transportation
    • Rural broadband
    • Municipal broadband
    • Cable TV (MSO)
  • 5G ecosystem: potential winners
  • Economic impact of 5G
  • Disruptive Technology: who/what will be disrupted?
  • Losers
    • Landline telephony providers
    • $100/month/line cell phone bills
    • “Walled gardens”
  • Winners
    • 5G providers/vendors in ecosystem
    • Consumers
  • End-to-end 5G: technology forecast


Conclusion and Summary

The Big Load for Small Cells

Small cells are key for future cellular communications as they provide higher capacity through network densification. One of the factors for success in Smart Cities is the ability to increase broadband coverage by means of small cells.

  • Overview
  • Application
    • The “why” of small cells
    • Service in dense environments
  • Architecture
    • Evolution in cellular topology
    • Smaller is better
  • Access
    • Considerations in deploying small cell
    • Backhaul “how to” for small cells
  • Administration
    • Spectrum
    • Placement and real estate concerns
  • Affordability
    • Economics of small cell
    • Market drivers for small cell
  • Conclusion


Distributed Antenna Systems: “I can hear you now”

The average tenure for a CIO is about 3 years. The joke is CIO stands for “Career is Over”. Every user demands perfect service everywhere and all the time. For example, tenants in buildings won’t tolerate dead spots for their cell phones.

Distributed Antenna Systems can make a CIO’s life easier by creating well defined cellular coverage areas with fewer holes.

  • Overview
  • Application
    • In-building services
    • Stadiums, auditoriums, etc
  • Architecture
    • Cellular
    • Wi-Fi
    • Wi-Gig
  • Access
    • Devices
    • Radios
    • Antennas
  • Administration
    • Spectrum
    • Placement and real estate concerns
  • Affordability
    • Who pays for DAS?
    • Benefits of DAS
    • Market drivers for DAS
  • Conclusion

Contact Us for More Information about this Course and other Training